VT100

Photo by Andrew Filer

Docker provides a comprehensive API and CLI to its platform. This article is concerned with customising the output returned by Docker CLI commands.

There are a large number of Docker client CLI commands, which provide information relating to various Docker objects on a given Docker host or Swarm cluster. Generally, this output is provided in a tabular format. An example, which all Docker users will have come across, is the docker container ls command, which provides a list of running containers:

$ docker container ls
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                  NAMES  
43195e559b42        wordpress           "docker-entrypoint..."   47 seconds ago      Up 46 seconds       0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   wp  
f7926468281f        mariadb             "docker-entrypoint..."   2 minutes ago       Up 2 minutes        3306/tcp               mysql  
Customising Command Output

Sometimes, all of this information is too much, and you may find yourself wanting to format the output just how you'd like it. You might want to do this to de-clutter the output, for aesthetic purposes, or for formatting output as input to scripts. This is quite straightforward to do, as a large number of CLI commands have a config option, --format, just for this purpose. The format of the output needs to be specified using a Golang template, which translates a JSON object into the desired format. For example, if we're only interested in the container ID, image, status, exposed ports and name, we could get this with the following (the \t specifies a tab):

$ docker container ls --format '{{.ID}}\t{{.Image}}\t{{.Status}}\t{{.Ports}}\t{{.Names}}'
43195e559b42    wordpress   Up 41 minutes   0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp    wp  
f7926468281f    mariadb Up 43 minutes   3306/tcp    mysql  

This provides us with the reduced amount of information we specified, but it looks a bit shoddy. We can add the table directive to improve the look:

$ docker container ls --format 'table {{.ID}}\t{{.Image}}\t{{.Status}}\t{{.Ports}}\t{{.Names}}'
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               STATUS              PORTS                  NAMES  
43195e559b42        wordpress           Up About an hour    0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   wp  
f7926468281f        mariadb             Up About an hour    3306/tcp               mysql  

Docker actually uses a template applied to a JSON object, to generate the default output you see when no user-defined formatting is applied. The default table format for listing all of the container objects is:

table {{.ID}}\t{{.Image}}\t{{.Command}}\t{{.RunningFor}}\t{{.Status}}\t{{.Ports}}\t{{.Names}}  

These are not the complete set of fields available in the output, however. We can find all of the fields associated with the container object, with:

$ docker container ls --format '{{json .}}' | jq '.'
{
  "Command": "\"docker-entrypoint...\"",
  "CreatedAt": "2017-07-24 16:23:25 +0100 BST",
  "ID": "43195e559b42",
  "Image": "wordpress",
  "Labels": "",
  "LocalVolumes": "1",
  "Mounts": "c71e998f250e...",
  "Names": "wp",
  "Networks": "wp",
  "Ports": "0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp",
  "RunningFor": "About an hour ago",
  "Size": "0B",
  "Status": "Up About an hour"
}
{
  "Command": "\"docker-entrypoint...\"",
  "CreatedAt": "2017-07-24 16:21:33 +0100 BST",
  "ID": "f7926468281f",
  "Image": "mariadb",
  "Labels": "",
  "LocalVolumes": "1",
  "Mounts": "acaa1732009a...",
  "Names": "mysql",
  "Networks": "wp",
  "Ports": "3306/tcp",
  "RunningFor": "About an hour ago",
  "Size": "0B",
  "Status": "Up About an hour"
}

Notice that there are some keys in each of the objects, missing from the default output; Labels, LocalVolumes, Mounts and Networks, to name a few. Hence, we could customise our output further, by replacing the Status field with the Networks field:

$ docker container ls --format 'table {{.ID}}\t{{.Image}}\t{{.Networks}}\t{{.Ports}}\t{{.Names}}'
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               NETWORKS            PORTS                  NAMES  
43195e559b42        wordpress           bridgey,wp          0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   wp  
f7926468281f        mariadb             wp                  3306/tcp               mysql  
Making a Customisation Permanent

The --formatconfig option is great, if you want to customise the output in a specific way for a particular use case. It would be a significant PITA, however, if you had to remember this syntax each time you issued a command, if you wanted to perpetually have customised output. You would of course, create an alias, or a script. Docker, however, allows you to make this customisation more permanent, with the use of a configuration file. When a user on a Docker host logs in to the Docker Hub for the very first time, using the docker login command, a file called config.json is created in a directory called .docker in the user's home directory. This file is used by Docker to hold JSON encoded properties, including a user's credentials. It can also be used to hold the format template for the docker container ls command, using the psFormat property. The property is called psFormat, after the old version of the command name, docker ps. A config.json file might look like this:

$ cat config.json
{
    "auths": {},
    "psFormat": "table {{.ID}}\t{{.Image}}\t{{.Status}}\t{{.Ports}}\t{{.Names}}\t{{.Networks}}"
}

The psFormat property is the JSON key, whilst the value is the required template for configuring the command output.

With the psFormat property defined, every time you use the docker container ls command, you'll get the customised output you desire. It's possible to override the customisation on a case by case basis, simply by using the --format config option, which takes precedence. Take care when editing the config file; incorrect syntax could render all properties invalid.

Valid Command Customisation Properties

Whilst the output for a large number of commands can be formatted using the --format config option, permanent customisation via a property defined in the config.json file, is mainly reserved for commands listing particular objects. A complete list of the commands, their relevant config property, and default template, are provided in the table below:

Command Property Default Template
docker container ls psFormat table {{.ID}}\t{{.Image}}\t{{.Command}}\t{{.RunningFor}}\t{{.Status}}\t{{.Ports}}\t{{.Names}}
docker image ls imagesFormat table {{.Repository}}\t{{.Tag}}\t{{.ID}}\t{{.CreatedSince}}\t{{.Size}}
docker network ls networksFormat table {{.ID}}\t{{.Name}}\t{{.Driver}}\t{{.Scope}}
docker node ls nodesFormat table {{.ID}} {{if .Self}}*{{else}} {{end}}\t{{.Hostname}}\t{{.Status}}\t{{.Availability}}\t{{.ManagerStatus}}
docker plugin ls pluginsFormat table {{.ID}}\t{{.Name}}\t{{.Description}}\t{{.Enabled}}
docker secret ls secretFormat table {{.ID}}\t{{.Name}}\t{{.CreatedAt}}\t{{.UpdatedAt}}
docker service ls servicesFormat table {{.ID}}\t{{.Name}}\t{{.Mode}}\t{{.Replicas}}\t{{.Image}}\t{{.Ports}}
docker service ps tasksFormat table {{.ID}}\t{{.Name}}\t{{.Image}}\t{{.Node}}\t{{.DesiredState}}\t{{.CurrentState}}\t{{.Error}}\t{{.Ports}}
docker volume ls volumesFormat table {{.Driver}}\t{{.Name}}

The output of a couple of additional Docker CLI commands, can also be defined in the config.json file. The first of these is the format associated with the output of the docker stats command. This command provides rudimentary, real-time resource consumption for running containers, and the statsFormat property allows for customising which metrics are displayed:

Command Property Default Template
docker stats statsFormat table {{.Container}}\t{{.CPUPerc}}\t{{.MemUsage}}\t{{.MemPerc}}\t{{.NetIO}}\t{{.BlockIO}}\t{{.PIDs}}

The second additional property available, is used to format the output associated with the docker service inspect command. Historically, inspect commands, for example docker container inspect, provide JSON output. Docker's maintainers decided that, whilst the docker service inspect command warranted having its output rendered in a more readable format than JSON, they didn't want to break the expected behaviour associated with the inspect commands for other objects. As a compromise, in addition to providing a --pretty config option for the command itself, it's also possible to set the default output to pretty using the serviceInspectProperty in the config.json file:

Command Property Useful Template
docker service inspect serviceInspectFormat pretty